Candida peritonitis refers not simply to the isolation of Candida spp. from the peritoneal fluid, but concomitant documentation of inflammation of the peritoneal cavity. Two groups of patients are generally affected and are discussed separately. Note that the group of surgical patients can be further subdivided into two quite different populations:

  1. Patients on peritoneal dialysis
  2. Surgical patients with gut injury
    • Patients with hollow organ (intestine, biliary tree) injury
    • Solid (abdominal) organ transplant recipients

Occasionally, the isolation of Candida from the peritoneal fluid seems to be an incidental phenomenon [205]. For a case to be considered under this category, the following conditions should all be present:

  • Absence of systemic and local symptoms (fever, abdominal pain)
  • Normal white blood count
  • Clear ascitic fluid (with normal white count)
  • Second peritoneal fluid culture negative