Fungal infections have emerged as a significant clinical problem in recent years. Due to the increasing frequency of fungal infections, mycology is today undergoing a true renaissance. Although not fully sufficient yet, we have novel tools for diagnosis. While the conventional methods of cultivation and histopathology remain the gold standards for diagnosis, the progressions in molecular mycological methods have markedly influenced the concept of rapid diagnosis.

Therapeutic modalities have also evolved. The development of novel antifungal agents, including agents of entirely new classes, is noteworthy. Finally, the development of the standard in vitro susceptibility testing procedures for yeasts [1623] and moulds [1622] has established a process for estimation of likely clinical outcome by N/A(L):in vitro susceptibility testing results. This provides increasingly useful ways to determine susceptibility patterns for each of the fungi.

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